Financial Resource Center

Money Management


Life Changes Trigger Financial Changes

by Center for Personal Finance editors / March 11th, 2013

Life changes—getting married, divorced, having a child, or facing widowhood—require more than the subsequent emotional adjustment. These milestones also signal the need to take stock and make financial adjustments. Making the right choices and changes will help you move forward with confidence and control.

Marriage

Have the money talk. Sit down and set financial goals—do you want to save for a new house? Have five kids? Take yearly vacations? Retire early? Planning is easier once you know what you want to do. Decide if you're going to pool your assets or maintain separate financial accounts. Corral credit. During the money talk, exchange credit reports and take financial inventory. Who owes what? How many credit cards are there between you? Are there problems or red flags on either credit report? If your goals include buying a home, car, or having children, focus on cleaning up any credit problems and curtailing future debt. If you want to buy a house or car together, it may be advantageous for the partner with better credit to list his or her name first on the application to help secure the loan or a better rate. To maintain your individual credit history, keep at least one credit card or loan in your own name. Make name change notifications. Make a list of agencies to notify if you're changing your name, including credit card issuers, the Social Security Administration, the motor vehicle department, and the U.S. Passport Office. With tightened security for travel, having the same name on documents is especially important. Find out if you need to submit proof of marriage with your name-change request. Create or update your wills and powers of attorney. A current will is very important because, depending on state law, everything might not automatically go to your spouse if you die. Also set up a durable power of attorney for financial matters and, if appropriate, a health-care power of attorney. Consider establishing a living will to ensure your end-of-life health-care wishes are met.
To maintain your individual credit history, keep at least one credit card or loan in your own name.
Check your insurance. Review your auto, health, property, disability, personal liability, and life-insurance coverage. Update beneficiaries on your policies, your IRAs (individual retirement accounts), and other investments.

Divorce

Educate yourself. Understand your financial position. Go through financial accounts and figure out where the money is. Pull credit reports to see if there are any credit cards or loans that you don't know about. You can request one free report a year from each of the three major credit reporting bureaus by visiting annualcreditreport.com, the only website authorized to provide these free reports. You also can call 877-322-8228 or complete the Annual Credit Report Request Form and mail it to Annual Credit Report Request Service, P.O. Box 105281, Atlanta, GA, 30348-5281. Collect information. Before your first visit to an attorney, make copies of all financial records, including statements from financial institutions and brokerage companies, tax returns for the past two or three years, mortgages and other loans, copies of financial statements on file at any financial institutions, insurance, safe deposit boxes, wills, and trusts. Establish credit. If you don't have a credit rating, try to establish credit on your own before the breakup. Open and fund checking and savings accounts in your own name. Get a credit card in your own name and manage it carefully. Update wills and beneficiaries. Check your will, all insurance policies, and financial accounts such as pensions and 401(k)s to change beneficiaries.
Debt incurred in a joint account will follow both spouses after the divorce.
Separate credit accounts. Debt incurred in a joint account will follow both spouses after the divorce. Regardless of what the court says about who's responsible for paying off debts, if the responsible spouse quits paying, creditors will go after the other spouse. Talk to your lawyer about how to best close joint accounts and limit your liability. Maintain insurance coverage. During separation you'll still be covered under your spouse's health insurance, but once you're divorced, you'll need to obtain health insurance for yourself. To avoid a gap in coverage, deal with the issue early in divorce negotiations. Comparison-shop to get the best value on auto, property, disability, health, and life insurance.

Death of a spouse or parent

Get 10 death certificates. You'll need copies for such things as insurance, 401(k) payouts, Social Security, probate, and to change the title on property. Organize finances. If it's not already done, go through all financial papers and make a list of assets and liabilities; gather statements from financial institutions and brokerage companies, insurance policies, employment records, tax returns, and so forth. Write a list of any other bills owed, including school loans, credit cards, utilities, and mortgages. You'll need to notify all creditors of the death. Student loans die with the person, but all the rest have to be paid out of the estate. Cancel accounts and services. Check for and cancel any automatic or online bill paying services unless you'll continue to use them. Notify any fee-based membership or subscription services to cancel accounts such as health clubs, magazine subscription, online services, and so forth. Contact income providers. Notify former employers, pension fund administrators, and financial institutions holding IRAs or other retirement income accounts. Each may have a different beneficiary. If the deceased received Social Security benefits, notify the Social Security Administration as soon as possible; the estate will have to pay back money received after the death. Check with a certified public accountant or tax preparation service to see if tax considerations need attention. Social Security may pay a lump sum death benefit of $255.
Major life milestones signal the need to take stock financially and make adjustments.
Contact life-and health-insurance providers. Life insurance companies will distribute money to the beneficiary listed on the policies. Don't cancel health insurance until all outstanding bills have been paid.

Expecting a new baby (birth or adoption)

Understand your finances. Take a look at what you owe and what you make. If you plan to move, buy a bigger car, or quit work to raise the baby, you'll need to create a budget that helps you forecast where you'll be financially. Ensure coverage. Visit your employee benefits department to find out, in plain language, what your health insurance policy covers and how much time you have to add a new baby or adopted child to your policy. Research and understand other policies at work relating to such things as maternity or family leave and flex-spending accounts. Create or update your wills. Besides instructions about how the estate should be distributed, wills also should include the name of whomever the parents have chosen as their child's guardian. Parents also may wish to appoint a different person to be the guardian of a child's money. Every time you have a new baby, you should add the child's name to your will and revisit the guardian choice. Use board-certified estate planning attorneys—it can end up costing you more if the will isn't well-written. Take advantage of tax credits. Claim each of your children on your tax return. Parents may be eligible for up to $12,970 for qualified adoption expenses. Check with a CPA (certified public accountant) or tax preparer for more information. Check out child care. The National Childcare Information Center provides extensive information about what to look for in a provider.
Facebook Post